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解剖與生理學課程:骨骼系統與肌肉系統
IFPA 相關

/ 2020/07/10

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
骨骼系統
 
The Student will be able to:

  • Describe the main functions of the skeletal system描述骨骼系統的主要功能:

-support, protection, movement 支撐、保護、移動
-mineral storage儲存礦物質
-production  of blood cells 製造血液細胞

  • Classify bones according to location, shape and function根據位置、形狀和功能對骨骼進行分類
  • Describe the structure and development of bone cells描述骨骼細胞的結構和發育
  • Recognise prominent bony points by surface marking通過表面標記識別突出的骨質點
  • Describe the structure of a typical long bone and label a simple diagram描述典型的長骨結構,並標記一個簡單的圖表      
  • Name the components and describe the functions of the axial and appendicular skeletons認識骨骼單位並形容中軸骨及四肢骨
  • Recognise and name the main facial and cranial bones and sinuses:識別並命名主要的面部和顱骨及鼻竇:

-Cranial bones顱骨

frontal額骨、parietal頂葉、temporal顳骨、occipital枕骨、sphenoid蝶骨、ethmoid篩骨

-Sinuses鼻竇

ethmoidal sinus篩竇、frontal sinus額竇、sphenoidal sinus蝶竇、maxillary sinus上頜竇

-Facial bones顏面骨

nasal鼻、maxilla & mandible上頜骨和下頜骨

  • Describe the arrangement of the vertebrae in the spinal column: numbers of each vertebrae描述脊柱中椎骨的排列:每個椎骨的編號
  • Describe the normal curvatures of the spine and recognise disorders描述脊柱的正常彎曲度並識別疾病
  • Name and locate the major bones on the body or on a simple diagram在身體或簡單圖表上命名並找到主要骨骼
  • Describe the effects of ageing on bone描述衰老對骨骼的影響


Joints   (Articulations)
關節

 
The Student will be able to:

  • Describe the classification of joints by structure and function
  • 按結構和功能描述關節的分類
  • Describe a typical synovial joint and explain the functions of its constituent parts
  • 描述典型的滑液關節並解釋其組成部分的功能
  • Recognise each type of synovial joint and give examples of each:planar, hinge, ball & socket, condyloid, saddle, pivot識別每種類型的滑液關節,並舉例說明:平面關節、鉸鏈關節、球窩關節、髁狀關節、鞍狀關節、車軸關節
  • Describe the type of movement at each type of joint描述每種關節的運動類型
  • Explain “range of movement” and describe the factors which limit movement at joints解釋“運動範圍”並描述限制關節運動的因素
  • Describe the effects of ageing on synovial joints描述衰老對滑液關節的影響
  • Name & briefly describe common disorders/diseases of the skeletal system including名稱和簡要描述骨骼系統的常見失調/疾病,包括:

-Arthritic conditions關節炎情況:Osteoarthritis 骨關節炎、Rheumatoid arthritis類風濕性關節炎、Ankylosing spondylitis 強直性脊柱炎、Reactive arthropothies 反應性關節炎、Infective arthropothies感染性關節炎、Joint replacements關節置換

-Soft tissue conditions軟組織狀況:Bursitis 滑囊炎、Tendonitis肌腱炎、Sprains & Strains扭傷和拉傷、Synovitis滑膜炎

-General一般:Gout痛風、Non-specific back pain非特異性背痛、Postural defects, including lordosis, scoliosis and kyphosis姿勢缺陷,包括脊柱前凸,脊柱側彎和後凸、Subluxation (dislocation) 脫位(脫臼)、Contractures攣縮、Osteoporosis骨質疏鬆症

THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
肌肉系統

 
The Student will be able to:

  • Describe the structure & functions of thethree types of muscle tissue描述三種肌肉組織的結構和功能:skeletal (striated) 骨骼肌、smooth (nonstriated) 平滑肌、cardiac 心肌
  • Describe the gross and microscopic structure of skeletal muscle描述骨骼肌的總體和微觀結構
  • Describe the mechanism of the process of muscle contraction描述肌肉收縮過程的機制
  • Define muscle tone, isotonic and isometric contraction, agonist, antagonist定義肌肉張力,等張和等距收縮,活化劑,拮抗劑
  • Indicate on a model or diagram the principal superficial muscles of the body在模型或圖表上標明身體的主要淺層肌肉
  • List the points of origin & insertion of the major muscles and their actions列出主要肌肉的起始點和嵌入點及其動作
  • Describe the direction of fibres描述纖維的方向
  • Explain the process of muscle fatigue解釋肌肉疲勞的過程
  • Explain the structure and functions of tendons and ligaments解釋肌腱和韌帶的結構和功能
  • Name & briefly describe common disorders/diseases of the muscular system including命名並簡要描述肌肉系統的常見疾病/疾病,包括:

-Local主要:Fibrositis 落枕、Fibromyalgia纖維肌痛症、Repetitive strain injury 重複性勞損、Carpel tunnel syndrome腕隧道症候群、Ganglion cysts 腱鞘囊腫、Dupuytren’s contracture掌筋膜攣縮症

-General一般:Muscle wasting diseases eg. 肌肉萎縮性疾病、Myasthenia gravis重症肌無力、Muscular dystrophy 肌營養不良症、Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME) 慢性疲勞症候群、Peripheral neuropathies 周邊神經病變、eg diabetes, drug induced 例如糖尿病,藥物引起的


關鍵字:Pine ,感染,神經,肌肉,骨骼,

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